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How To Paraphrase A Citation. When you write a paper for a university class you will be expected to express the results of your research in your own words. Copying an entire paper or even words or ideas from a source and presenting this as your own work is called plagiarism and is a major form of academic dishonesty. To ensure that you arent plagiarizing you need to give credit to the creators of the original ideas.
A paraphrase is a rewriting of a specific passage from someone else so it will be approximately the same length as the sources original quote. When you completely or partially describe the outcome of a more substantial part of the research it is called a summary. There is a distinct difference between paraphrasing and summarizing.
However in general as is the case in many universities both are often referred to as paraphrasing. Just like a quotation a paraphrase is always cited in your paper and on a separate page at the end. 5 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing Read your passage until you comprehend its full meaning.
As you read jot down bullet points on the facts or opinions presented but do not copy word for word without using quotation marks. Published authors paraphrase their sources most of the time rather than directly quoting the sources. Student authors should emulate this practice by paraphrasing more than directly quoting.
When you paraphrase cite the original work using either the narrative or parenthetical citation format. MLA style citation is more precise than APA in locating information utilized since page number is indicated not only for direct quotes but also for any paraphrase. Thus for parenthetical citation one would have to name the author in particular family name along with a page without any comma in-between while for in-text citations family names are mentioned inside sentences while pages in parentheses as MLA follows an author-page format.
Paraphrasing can be tricky. You need to make sure that you dont copy the original authors style or wording. Even if you have a citation such borrowing would be considered plagiarism.
Paraphrases should sound like you using vocabulary and sentence structures that your reader would recognize as your work. For a parenthetical citation write your paraphrase and then add the author and year in parenthesis at the end. Use a comma between the author and the year inside the parenthesis and put the period for the end of the sentence outside the parenthesis.
Oh say can you see by the dawns early light. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Set the original aside and write your paraphrase on a note card.
Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. In addition to quotation marks or indenting all quoted material should also be cited using either footnotes endnotes or in-text citation.
To paraphrase is to include the ideas or information from an original source in your paper by rephrasing those ideas or information in your own words. Remember that you are required to cite your sources for paraphrases and direct quotes. For more information on MLA Style APA style Chicago Style ASA Style CSE Style and I-Search Format refer to our Gallaudet TIP Citations and References link.
Words that introduce Quotes or Paraphrases are basically three keys verbs. When creating your paraphrase you may decide that you want to keep one or two words from the source material. If you do this its important to use quotation marks.
This is helpful when you want to make use of powerful words in the original text. Generally use an in-text citation for anything other than your original words. A paraphrased statement generally is cited the same way a direct quote would be.
The in-text citation directs your readers to the reference list at the end of your paper which provides a more detailed description of the source material used. To paraphrase well read the original a few times consider the context jot down the key ideas compose your paraphrase compare your paraphrase to the original and add an in-text citation. The MLA advises using in-text citations in order to give proper credit to a paraphrases original source.
A page number is optional for a paraphrase but it is a good idea. Part of the reason for citations is to allow a reader to follow your research. If the source you are paraphrasing is long or complex a page number would help the reader find the original material.
Place a lowercase p followed by a period and a space before the page number. Sum up the main idea s of the authors argument using your own words and sentence structure. Simply including one citation at the end of a paragraph is NOT APA compliant.
The reader cannot know with one citation which ideas are yours and which are from the article. When citing paraphrased information APA requires you to include the author and date. It is also recommended but not required that you include the page number.
The format of the page number depends on if the information is on a single page or range of pages. Examples of Citing Paraphrased Information at the Beginning of a Sentence. Direct quote with brief citation in Harvard style - Wenger 1998 p181 argues that.
Engagement imagination and alignment each create relations of belonging. Paraphrase with brief citation in numeric style - The focus of Wengers discussion is on the way that different aspects come together to build notions of identity 3. Position your citation at the end of your paraphrase but before the period.
List the last name of the author after an open parenthetical mark. List the page numbers you are paraphrasing and then close your citation with a parenthetical mark. For multiple pages use a hyphen between the numbers.
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